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Orlando’s ASD- Simplified Technical English


Orlando Chiarello is the Chairman of the ASD Simplified Technical English Maintenance Group (STEMG), responsible for the development and maintenance of the ASD-STE100, Simplified Technical English, Specification (www.asd-ste100.org). He is the Product Support Manager of Secondo Mona (www.secondomona.com), an Italian aerospace systems and equipment manufacturer, where he is responsible for the aftermarket support of the company products.
Category: General

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Orlando's example for July 2021 - EXPLANATION OF WRITING RULES

SECTION 1 - WORDS

Technical names

Rule 1.5 You can use words that you can include in a technical name category.

Technical names are words related to categories that are specified in this rule. The dictionary does not include technical names as approved words, because there are too many, and each manufacturer uses different technical names. STE gives you a list of categories, with examples, to help you use technical names correctly.

The listed technical names are only examples, and this is not a complete list of all possible technical names. Words in the list have capital letters only when it is necessary. For example, units of measurement, titles, official names, or quoted text.

Words are technical names if you can include them in one or more of these 20 categories.

1.    Names in the official parts information (for example, Illustrated Parts Catalogue/List or engineering drawing): bolt, cable, clip, conductor, contact, engine, ferry tank, filter, hatch, indicator, light, logo, oil seal, prelubricated seal, pipe, propeller, retractor link, screw, switch, transceiver

2.    Names of vehicles or machines, and locations on them: ircraft, aircraft carrier, airframe, airplane, bicycle, cabin, car, cargo compartment, cargo hold, cockpit, deck, engine room, fuselage, helicopter, galley, lifeboat, overhead panel, ship, submarine, tank, train, truck, wing, wing root

3.    Names of tools and support equipment, their parts, and locations on them: access ladder, blade, brush, cap, chock, clamp, cover, display, file, gauge (gage), handle, jack, label, rigging pin, roller, rope, rung, shaft, stand, tag, test rig, torque wrench, trestle

4.    Names of materials, consumables, and unwanted material: acid, adhesive, aluminum alloy, ammunition, compound, copper, debris, detergent, dirt, disinfectant, dust, foam, foreign object, fuel, grease, oil, paint, penetrant spray, plastic, primer, sealant, sealing, soap, stainless steel, tape, waste, water, wire

5.    Names of facilities, infrastructure, and logistic procedures: airport, apron, base, building, camp, dock, engine shop floor, flight simulator, gate, handling, hangar, packaging, packing, port, service bay, shipping, shop, store, storage, transport

6.    Names of systems, components and circuits, their functions, configurations, and parts: air conditioning, amplifying circuit, armament, audio, aural warning system, collapsed position, exhaust, flight management, hardware, inhibiting signal, injection, inlet, input frequency, latch, pedal, power unit, pump, reverse mode, reverse position, standby mode, upright position, vent

7.    Mathematical, scientific, engineering terms, and formulas: acceleration, allowance, astronomy, atom, average, biochemistry, biology, biome, burr, capacitance, carbon, category, cavitation, center, circle, coefficient, configuration, conversion, count, critical temperature, curve, cycle, defect, degree, deceleration, density, diameter, displacement, duty cycle, elapsed time, electricity, energy, exponent, failure, ferry flight, flutter, force, fumes, genetics. geology. geophysics, graph, gravity, hardness, heat treatment, idle speed, ignition, incidence, inhibition, instrumentation, interference, issue, light, line replaceable unit, load, loss, measurement, modification, momentum, motoring, overhaul, oversized hole, oxygen, performance, phase, polarity, power, pressure, process, radius, rating, ratio, reduction, resistance, scan, shutdown, signal, specific gravity, stall, standard, steam, stiffness, strength, suction, temperature, tension, thread, tightness, torque, toxic property, vapor, voltage, water vapor, “C = (A - B) - 0.063 mm”

8.    Navigation and geographic terms: air, altitude, attitude, axis, bank, clearance, climb, coordinates, critical approach, datum, delay, deviation, drag, east, France, glideslope, gradient, heading, landing, leeway, Lima, north, pitch, roll, skid, south, west

9.    Numbers, units of measurement and time (and their symbols): 92, 303, ½, ¼, ampere (A), degree (°), first, half, hour (h), kilogram (kg), knot, liter (L or l), meter (m), mile, minute ('), month, ohm (W), one, one-quarter, second (²), second (s), second, square inch (sq.in.), spring, third, three, year, winter, zero

10.  Quoted text (for example, that on placards, labels, signs, markings, and display units): abort button, EXIT sign, INOP system, OXYGEN pushbutton switch, ON position, NEXT button, FAULT legend, NO STEP marking, FASTEN SAFETY BELT sign, WEAR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING sign

11.  Names of persons, groups, or organisations: air traffic control, captain, commander, copilot, crew, crew chief, European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), manufacturer, operator, Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA)

12.  Parts of the body: blood, digestive system, ear, eyes, hair, hand, head, lung, mouth, respiratory tract, skin, stomach

13.  Common personal effects, food, and drink: beans, bread, cigarette lighter, clothing, coffee, flour, footwear, high-heeled shoes, jewelry, lipstick, matches, milk, mineral water, nail scissors, perfume, pizza, shampoo, wine

14.  Medical terms: allergy, aspirin, asthma, blood poisoning, breathing, circulation, dermatitis, diabetes, dizziness, female, headache, heart rate, irritation, male, medication, nausea, pneumonia, pregnancy, pulse, skin irritation, virus

15.  Names of official documents and parts of documentation (this includes manuals, technical records, standards, specifications, and regulations): Acceptance Test, Allowable Damage, attention, caution, chapter, Checklist, Class, Cleaning, Compass Correction Card, danger, data module, Description and Operation, diagram, engine logbook, Federal Aviation Regulations, Fault Isolation, figure, flow chart, font, Functional Test, Ice and Rain Protection, Inspection/Check, issue, letter, maintenance planning, maintenance practice, maintenance records, Normal Braking, note, notice, packaging, page, paragraph, parentheses, post-flight report, post-mod, pre-mod, preservation, reference, Removal/Installation, Repair Scheme, revision, section, Service Bulletin, Standard Practices Manual, storage, Structural Repair Manual, table, test procedure, Transportation, valid welding certificate, warning

16.  Environmental and operational conditions: atmosphere, cloud, day, daylight, ice, hail, humidity, lightning, moisture, night, rain, sand, snow, storm, turbulence, volcanic ash, wind

17.  Colours: beige, black, cyan blue, dark brown, gray, green, magenta, light green, orange, red, white, yellow

NOTE: Colours are adjectives, but – conventionally – STE defines them as technical names. Comparative and superlative forms of colours (for example, blacker, the reddest) are not permitted in STE.

18.  Damage terms: buckle, chafing, corrosion, crack, crack propagation, deformation, dent, discoloration, distortion, erosion, fracture, fraying, galling, kink, nick, score, scratch, stain, spurious fault message

19.  Information technology and telephony terms: add-in, add-on, arrow, authentication, backup, backup file, bookmark, content, cursor, database, dialog check box, e-mail, field, file, firewall, HTML, icon, interface, internet, laptop, local operation, memory, menu, mouse, network, operating system, phone, plug-in, pre-loaded software, preset value, remote operation, screen, smartphone, status bar, store, tablet, toolbar, touchscreen, tweet, update, voice mail, XML

20.  Military terms: armed forces, assault, bomb, bullet, checkpoint, combat plan, deployment, echelon, ejection seat, evacuation, formation, general, ground zero, gun, lieutenant, machine gun, mission, patrol, rank

Orlando's Examples for June 2021 - EXPLANATION OF WRITING RULES

SECTION 1 - WORDS

Approved meaning

Rule 1.3       Use approved words only with their approved meanings.

Each approved word in the dictionary has a specified approved meaning which can be more restricted than its meaning in standard English. Always use these words with their approved meanings.

Example:

The approved meaning of the word “follow” is “come after, go after” and not “obey.”

Non-STE: Follow the safety instructions.

STE: Obey the safety instructions.

But you can write:

STE: Do the instructions that follow:

STE: Follow the green lights to the nearest staircase.

Forms of verbs and adjectives

Rule 1.4       Use only the approved forms of verbs and adjectives.

Each approved verb in the dictionary is given with its approved forms. Approved adjectives are given in their basic form, with their comparative and superlative forms in parentheses where applicable.

Examples:

REMOVE (v),

REMOVES, REMOVED, REMOVED

This word tells you that you can use the approved verb “remove” as follows:

Infinitive / Imperative

Present tense

Simple past tense

Past participle

(as an adjective)

 (To) Remove / Remove

Remove(s)

Removed

Removed

The past participle of the verb is often the same as the simple past tense. This is why it is given two times in the dictionary.

SLOW (adj)

(SLOWER, SLOWEST)

This word tells you that you can use the approved adjective “slow” as follows:

Basic form

Comparative form

Superlative form

Slow, Slower, Slowest

Adjectives that make their comparative and superlative forms with “more” and “most” do not have these forms listed in the dictionary, because “more” and “most” are also listed as approved words.ontribution for June 2021

Orlando's STE Contribution for May 2021

After the release of the new STE issue 8, instead of the usual monthly rewriting, I would like to start reviewing the writing rules one-by-one as they are written and explained in the specification.

EXPLANATION OF WRITING RULES

SECTION 1 - WORDS

Which words can you use?

Rule 1.1: You can use words that are:

- Approved in the dictionary or - Technical names or - Technical verbs.

Simplified Technical English (STE) has a controlled dictionary (part 2) that gives you the words most frequently used in technical writing. You can also use words that are not in the dictionary if you can include them in the specified categories of technical names and technical verbs.

Examples: 

The word “use” is an approved verb in the dictionary.

The word “engine” is a technical name.

The word “ream” is a technical verb.

The dictionary also gives a selection of unapproved words, with examples that show how to use alternative words.

Part of speech

Rule 1.2: Use approved words from the dictionary only as the part of speech given.

In the dictionary, each approved word has a specified part of speech. When you use an approved word, make sure that you only use it as that part of speech.

Examples:

The word “test” is an approved noun, but not an approved verb.

STE: Test B is an alternative to test A.

Non-STE: Test the system for leaks.

STE: Do the leak test of the system.

          or

STE: Do a test for leaks in the system.

The word “dim” is an approved adjective, but not an approved verb.

STE: A dim light comes on.

Non-STE: Dim the lights.

STE:Set the lights to the dim position.

There are some words (not many) that are approved as more than one part of speech. For example, the word “clean” is an approved verb but also an approved adjective. The position of the word in the sentence will tell you its function (and its meaning,) because verbs and adjectives have different positions.

STE: Clean the inner surface of the container. (“Clean” is a verb here.)

STE: Make sure that the area is clean. (“Clean” is an adjective here.)

The word “acceptable” is an unapproved adjective. The dictionary gives an approved alternative that has the same part of speech. You can use that word to replace the unapproved word in the sentence (word-for-word replacement.)

Non-STE: A value of 2 mm is acceptable.

STE: A value of 2 mm is permitted.

The word “operable” is an unapproved adjective. The dictionary gives an approved alternative that has a different part of speech (“operate” as a verb.) Then, you must use a different sentence construction.

Non-STE: Make sure that the valve is operable.

STE: Make sure that the valve can operate.

If a word that you want to use is not in the dictionary, search for that word in an English dictionary and find which is the best synonym listed in the STE dictionary. Then, use the approved STE word.

When you replace a word, always make sure that the alternative you select does not change the meaning of the sentence. If the meaning changes, use a different construction.

Orlando's Question for April 2021: How can you write this text in STE?

Mechanics wearing insufficient protective clothing and opening containers containing hazardous materials in areas where there is a lack of ventilation, using inappropriate tools without observing the manufacturer's instructions, are in danger of coming into contact with these materials and thus suffering from skin irritation and breathing problems.

Orlando's Question for March 2021: How can you write this text in STE?

TIME CONTROLS

33.2 CHECK-IN PROCEDURE (continued)

33.2.10 Any difference between the actual check-in time and the target check-in time shall be penalised as follows:

a) For late arrival: 10 seconds per minute or fraction of a minute.

b) For early arrival: 1 minute per minute or fraction of a minute.

33.2.11 Provided that it has been stated in the supplementary regulations of the rally or is indicated in a later bulletin, the organisers may authorise crews to check in before time without incurring any penalty.

33.2.12 If it is found that a crew has not observed the rules for the check-in procedure, the chief marshal at the control must make this the subject of a written report to be sent immediately to the clerk of the course.

33.2.13 At the discretion of the clerk of the course, a crew which has been penalised for early arrival may be neutralised for the amount of time necessary for it to leave at the time originally envisaged.

Orlando's Question for Fwbruary 2021: How can you write this text in STE?

TIME CONTROLS

 33.2 CHECK-IN PROCEDURE (continued)

33.2.3 The actual timing and entry of the time on the time card may only be carried out if the two crew members and the car are in the control area and within the immediate vicinity of the control table.

33.2.4 The check-in time shall correspond to the exact moment at which one of the crew members hands the time card to the appropriate marshal.

33.2.5 Then, either by hand or by means of a print-out device, the appropriate marshal shall mark on the card the actual time at which the card was handed in, and nothing else.

33.2.6 The target check-in time is the time obtained by adding the allowed target time to the special stage start time or to the previous TC time, these times being expressed to the minute.

33.2.7 The target check-in time is the responsibility of the crews alone, who may consult the official clock on the control table. The marshals may not give them any information on this target check-in time.

33.2.8 The crew will not incur any penalty for checking in before time if the car enters the control area during the target check-in minute or the minute preceding it.

33.2.9 The crew will not incur any penalty for lateness if the act of handing the card to the appropriate marshal takes place during the target check-in minute.

Orlando's Question for January 2021: How can you rewrite this text in STE?

 PASSAGE CONTROLS

 At these controls, identified by the signs shown in Appendix I, the marshals must simply stamp and/or sign the time card as soon as it is handed in by the crew, without mentioning the time of passage.

 TIME CONTROLS

 33.1 OPERATION

At these controls, the marshals shall mark on the time card the time at which the card was handed in. Timing will be recorded to the complete minute.

33.2 CHECK-IN PROCEDURE

 33.2.1 The check-in procedure begins at the moment the car passes the time control area entry board.

 33.2.2 Between the area entry board and the control, the crew is forbidden to stop for any reason or to drive at an abnormally slow speed.

Orlando's Question for December 2020: How can you rewrite this text in STE?

CONTROLS

31. CONTROLS – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS (continued)

31.4 READINESS TO WORK

31.4.1 Controls shall be ready to function at least 30 minutes before the target time for the passage of the first competing car.

31.4.2 Unless the clerk of the course decides otherwise, they will cease to operate 15 minutes plus maximum lateness time after the due time of arrival of the last competing car.

31.5 SEQUENCE OF CONTROLS AND DIRECTION

31.5.1 Crews must check in in the correct sequence of controls and in the direction of the rally route.

31.5.2 It is prohibited to re-enter a control area.

31.6 MARSHALS’ INSTRUCTIONS

31.6.1 Crews are obliged to follow the instructions of the marshals of any control. Failure to do so will be reported to the Stewards.

31.6.2 All control officials must be identifiable. At each control, the chief official must wear a distinctive tabard.

31.7 MEDIA ZONES

A barriered media zone will be established prior to the yellow time control board at service parks or regroup parks and within the holding park before the podium procedure at the finish. Access to this media zone shall be limited to personnel holding the appropriate pass. Organisers must plan the itinerary and time schedule such that crews are expected to spend a minimum of 15 minutes in the media zone.

31.8 ON-BOARD CAMERA DATA EXCHANGE POINTS

On-board camera data may be exchanged when in the presence of a member of the team in the media zone, in regroups or parc fermés and at the exit of remote refuel zones. The organisers may also establish on-board camera (OBC) data exchange points within the itinerary. Such points must be notified in a Communication from the clerk of the course and are solely for the exchange of video data.

Orlando'd Question for November 2020: How can you rewrite this text in STE?

CONTROLS

31. CONTROLS – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

31.1 SIGNAGE OF CONTROLS

All controls, i.e. passage and time controls, start and finish of special stages and regrouping areas, shall be indicated by means of FIA-approved standardised signs complying with the drawings and distances in Appendix I and shall be indicated in the road book.

31.2 PROTECTIVE BARRIERS

An area of at least 5 m both before and after a control shall be protected by barriers on both sides of the road to enable control duties to be carried out.

31.3 STOPPING TIME IN CONTROL AREAS

The stopping time within any control area is limited to the time necessary for carrying out control operations.

Orlando's Question for October 2020: How can you rewrite this text in STE?

STE202010

29. SHAKEDOWN (continued)

29.3 FALSE START

For any false start, particularly one made before the signal has been given, a notional time of 10 minutes will be allocated to the car(s) concerned.

29.4 DISCLAIMER

Any passenger on board the car during shakedown who is not entered for the rally must have signed a disclaimer provided by the organiser.

29.5 BREAKDOWN DURING SHAKEDOWN

A competitor whose car breaks down during the shakedown shall nevertheless be required to attend the ceremonial start as outlined in Art. 43.

29.6 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

Before the shakedown the cars must pass scrutineering. For applicable cars, the engine, the complete transmission and the mechanical parts mentioned in Arts. 63 to 64 of these regulations must be sealed.

29.7 SERVICE DURING SHAKEDOWN

Service may be only carried out in the main service park, unless otherwise permitted in the supplementary regulations of the rally. Limitation on the number of personnel as per Art. 48.3 will not apply.

Orlando's Question for September 2020: How can you rewrite this text in STE?

28. FINAL CHECKS (continued)

28.2 SELECTION OF CARS

Post-rally scrutineering involving the dismantling of a car may be carried out either at the discretion of the Stewards or following a protest, or upon the recommendation of the clerk of the course and/or the FIA Technical Delegate to the Stewards.

29. SHAKEDOWN

29.1 RUNNING OF SHAKEDOWN

29.1.1 The shakedown stage shall be run as if it were a stage run during the rally and include all the appropriate safety measures. The stage should be representative for the rally.

29.1.2 The shakedown stage may be run using a super special stage or part of a stage of the itinerary of the rally.

29.2 SHAKEDOWN REQUIREMENTS

29.2.1 A shakedown stage will be organised with the purpose of being both a media and promotional opportunity and for competitors to trial their cars.

29.2.2 P1 drivers shall complete a minimum of 3 passages of the shakedown stage.

29.2.3 For P2, P3, RGT and non-priority drivers, participation is optional.

29.2.4 The ideal timeframe shall allow: 1.5 hours for P1 drivers, a further 2 hours for all Priority drivers and an optional final 2 hours for all non-priority drivers.

Orlando's Question for August 2020: How can you rewrite this text in STE?

28. FINAL CHECKS

28.1 FINAL PARC FERMÉ

28.1.1 After finish formalities, cars must be placed in a parc fermé where they must remain until released by the Stewards.

28.1.2 The provisional classification shall be published at the time specified in the supplementary regulations (or in a bulletin) which shall be as soon as practical after the last car has checked in at the final control, even if final scrutineering remains in progress.

28.1.3 When the protest time limit has expired, the Stewards may open the parc fermé, even if final scrutineering remains in progress.

Orlando's Question for July 2020: How can you rewrite this text in STE?

26. BEFORE THE START OF THE COMPETITION ELEMENT OF THE RALLY (continued)

26.2 TIMETABLE

A timetable for scrutineering, including the sealing of components and checking the weight of cars entered by Manufacturers, shall be issued in the supplementary regulations or in a bulletin.

27. DURING THE RALLY

27.1 ADDITIONAL CHECKS

Checks on safety items, including clothing, as well as on the car, may be carried out at any time during the rally including shakedown at the sole discretion and upon the instruction of the FIA Technical delegate, with the knowledge of the Stewards.

27.2 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE CREWS

27.2.1 The competitor is responsible for the technical conformity of his car throughout the rally.

27.2.2 Should identification marks (see Arts. 26.1.6 and 63 and 64) be affixed, it is the responsibility of the competitor to see that these are preserved intact from pre-rally scrutineering until the end of the rally or until it will be allowed by these regulations to cut the seals. Should they be missing, this will be reported to the Stewards.

27.2.3 It is also the responsibility of the competitor to see to it that any part of the car which has been handled during checking is reinstalled correctly.

27.2.4 Any fraud discovered, and in particular identification

Orlando's Question for June 2020: How can you rewrite this text in STE?

26. BEFORE THE START OF THE COMPETITION ELEMENT OF THE RALLY 

26.1 GENERAL

26.1.1 Cars may be presented at scrutineering by a representative of the team unless otherwise detailed in supplementary regulations.

26.1.2 At scrutineering, competitors must produce all items of clothing including helmets and head retaining device intended to be used. Compliance with Appendix L Chapter III will be checked.

26.1.3 All cars must have their sump guards removed for sealing of gearboxes and differentials, and be kept with the car for the purpose of weighing.

26.1.4 The crew must show the car's complete certified homologation form.

26.1.5 The Manufacturers registered in the Championship may present a signed Certificate of Technical Conformity.

26.1.6 Scrutineers will require the car to be identified. The chassis and cylinder block will be marked.

26.1.7 Only those components that were sealed at initial scrutineering may be used throughout the rally. Such components must remain in their sealed state.

26.1.8 After scrutineering, if a car is found not to comply with technical and/or safety regulations, the Stewards, upon the proposal of the FIA Technical delegate, may set a deadline before which the car must be made to comply, or may refuse the start.

Orlando's Question for May 2020: How can you rewrite this text in STE?

HOW TO USE THE MEDICAL MASKS 

Before putting on a mask, clean hands with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water.
Cover mouth and nose with mask and make sure there are no gaps between your face and the mask.
Avoid touching the mask while using it; if you do, clean your hands with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water.
Replace the mask with a new one as soon as it is damp and do not re-use single-use masks.
To remove the mask: remove it from behind (do not touch the front of mask); discard immediately in a closed bin; clean hands with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water. 

Orlando's Question for April 2020: How can you rewrite this text in STE?

 Watch for symptoms

Reported illnesses have ranged from mild symptoms to severe illness and death for confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases.

These symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure (based on the incubation period of MERS-CoV viruses).

Fever, Cough, Shortness of breath

If you develop emergency warning signs for COVID-19 get medical attention immediately. Emergency warning signs include*:

Trouble breathing, Persistent pain or pressure in the chest, New confusion or inability to arouse, Bluish lips or face

 *This list is not all inclusive. Please consult your medical provider for any other symptoms that are severe or concerning. 

Orlando's Question for March 2020: How can you rewrite this text in STE?

CORONAVIRUS - PRECAUTIONS

•    Wash hands thoroughly and often with soap and water, especially after coughing and sneezing or before eating.
•    Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth, especially with unwashed hands.
•    Cover your nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing.
•    Avoid close contact with people who have symptoms of respiratory illness.
•    Wear a mask if you suspect you are ill, or if you are assisting someone else who is ill.
•    Clean off surfaces with alcohol- or chlorine-based disinfectants.

Orlando's Question for February 2020: How can you rewrite this text in STE? 

RECONNAISSANCE (continued)

25.5 PARTICIPATION IN RECONNAISSANCE ONLY
Any driver holding the appropriate international licence may apply to take part in reconnaissance for a rally. The regulations on reconnaissance must be respected in their entirety, the organiser must approve the application and if a fee applies, it shall be mentioned in the supplementary regulations. Manufacturer Teams may ask the organiser for some drivers to be included in the schedule for P1 drivers.

Orlando's Question for January 2020: How can you rewrite this text in STE?  RECONNAISSANCE (continued)

25.4 RUNNING OF RECONNAISSANCE (continued)
25.4.6 Service during reconnaissance
During the reconnaissance timetable, service of reconnaissance cars may only be provided by a maximum of 2 technicians per crew using a vehicle of a maximum of 3.5 tonnes and carrying all necessary service equipment on board.
A car pass may be issued by the organiser for this purpose.
This vehicle may travel on the special stages only to recover their reconnaissance car.
25.4.7 Crew
During each passage through a special stage, a maximum of 2 persons are permitted in the car.

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