"Welcome to the birthplace of MIRCE Science: a system of MIRCE
formulas that predicts the functionability performance of machines."
                                                            Dr Jezdimir Kneezevic, Founder and President, 1999

   

Orlando’s ASD- Simplified Technical English


Orlando Chiarello is the Chairman of the ASD Simplified Technical English Maintenance Group (STEMG), responsible for the development and maintenance of the ASD-STE100, Simplified Technical English, Specification (www.asd-ste100.org). He is the Product Support Manager of Secondo Mona (www.secondomona.com), an Italian aerospace systems and equipment manufacturer, where he is responsible for the aftermarket support of the company products.

Category: General

 For the correct answers please see the Members Only area of the website. 

>>>> To become a member of the MIRCE Akademy please click here <<<<

Orlando's Question for September 2018

How can you rewrite this text in STE?

2. DEFINITIONS (continued)
2.17 ROAD SECTION
The parts of an itinerary which are not used as special stages.
2.18 SECTION OF THE RALLY
Each part of the rally separated by a regroup.
2.19 SERVICE
Any work on a competing car except where limited in Art. 48.
2.20 SPECIAL STAGE
Timed speed test on roads closed to the public for the rally.
2.21 SUPER SPECIAL STAGE
Any variation from the running of a special stage as described in Arts. 37 to 38 of these regulations and detailed in the rally supplementary regulations and identified as such in the itinerary.
2.22 TEAM
A team is made up of the competitor, the crew and support personnel.

Orlando's Question for August 2018

Question: How can you rewrite this text in STE?

2. DEFINITIONS (continued)
2.13 PROHIBITED SERVICE
The use or receipt by the crew of any manufactured materials (solid or liquid, unless supplied by the organisers), spare parts, tools or equipment other than those carried in the competing car or the presence of team personnel as defined in Art. 48.2.
2.14 RECONNAISSANCE
The presence on a special stage in any way whatsoever of an FIA priority driver and/or co-driver at any time or of any non-priority crew member intending to enter a rally after the announcement of the itinerary.
2.15 RECONNAISSANCE TIMETABLE
The timetable specified in the supplementary regulations during which the crews may familiarise themselves with the rally route.
2.16 REGROUP
A stop scheduled by the organisers under parc fermé conditions having a time control at the entrance and exit to enable the schedule to be followed and/or to regroup the cars still in the rally. The stopping time may vary from crew to crew.

Orlando's Question for July 2018

How can you rewrite this text in STE?

2. DEFINITIONS (continued)
2.6 DECISION
A document issued by the clerk of the course or the Stewards to announce their findings following an enquiry, hearing or investigation.
2.7 FIA
Any mention of the FIA refers to the FIA Rally Department.
2.8 END OF THE RALLY
The rally ends upon posting of the Final Classification. The competition element of the rally finishes at the final time control.
2.9 EUROPE
For the purpose of these regulations, ‘Europe’ shall be considered to include the countries of the EU and EFTA.
2.10 LINKS
A minimum of two (2) rallies joined for the purposes of limiting the use of engines or transmissions or components.
2.11 NEUTRALISATION
The time during which a crew is stopped by the organisers for whatever reason where parc fermé rules apply.
2.12 PARC FERMÉ
An area in which any operation, checking, tuning or repair on the car is not allowed unless expressly provided for by these regulations or by the supplementary regulations of the rally and where only authorised officials are admitted.

Orlando's Question for June 2018

How can you rewrite this text in STE?

2. DEFINITIONS (continued)
2.4 CONTROL AREAS
The area between the first yellow warning sign and the final beige sign with three transverse stripes is considered as the control area.
2.5 CREW
A crew is made up of two persons on board each car nominated as driver and co-driver. Unless otherwise stated, either member of the crew may drive during the rally and each one must hold an FIA international driver’s competition license for the current year, which is valid for the rally. If no competitor is listed on the entry application, the driver is deemed also to be the competitor and must hold the two corresponding licenses. When competing outside their countries, crews must have taken out an international insurance policy covering their repatriation, if necessary, after an accident.

Orlando's Question for May 2018:

How can you rewrite this text in STE?

2. DEFINITIONS
2.1 BEGINNING OF THE RALLY
The rally begins on the day of administrative checks or reconnaissance (whichever is the earlier). The competition element of the rally begins at the first time control.
2.2 BULLETIN
Official written document intended to modify, clarify or complete the supplementary regulations of the rally as detailed in Appendix II.
2.3 COMMUNICATION
Official written document of an informative nature which may be issued by either the clerk of the course or the Stewards.

Orlando's Question for April 2018:

How can you rewrite this text found on an airport display in STE?

Only flights currently departing from gates 5a, 5b and 5c will be shown on this screen. Any passengers in this area whose flight is not displayed should return to the main departure lounge.

Orlando's Question for March 2018

How can you rewrite these paragraphs in STE?

28 PIT ENTRY, PIT LANE AND PIT EXIT (continued)

28.14 Under exceptional circumstances the race director may ask for the pit entry to be closed during the race for safety reasons. At such times drivers may only enter the pit lane in order for essential and entirely evident repairs to be carried out to the car. A penalty under Article 38.3(d) will be imposed on any driver who, in the opinion of the stewards, entered the pit lane for any other reason whilst it was closed.

Orlando's Question for February 2018

28 PIT ENTRY, PIT LANE AND PIT EXIT (continued)

28.13
a) Cars must not be released from a garage or pit stop position in way that could endanger pit lane personnel or another driver.
Competitors must provide a means of clearly establishing, when being viewed from both above and in the front of the car, when  a car was released.
b) If a car is deemed to have been released in an unsafe condition during any practice
session, the stewards may drop the driver such number of grid positions as they consider appropriate.
c) If a car is deemed to have been released in an unsafe condition during a race a penalty under Article 38.3(d) will be imposed on the driver concerned.
d) An additional penalty will be imposed on any driver who, in the opinion of the stewards, continues to drive a car knowing it to have been released in an unsafe condition. In all of the above cases, a car will be deemed to have been released either when it has been driven out of its designated garage area (when leaving from the garage) or after it has completely cleared its pit stop position following a pit stop.

Orlando's Question for January 2018

How can you rewrite these paragraphs in STE?

28 PIT ENTRY, PIT LANE AND PIT EXIT (continued)

28.12 Team personnel are only allowed in the pit lane immediately before they are required to work on a car and must withdraw as soon as the work is complete.
All team personnel carrying out any work on a car in the pit lane when the car is in its pit stop position during the qualifying practice session, or during a race pit stop, must be wearing helmets which meet or exceed the requirements of ECE 22.05 - European motorcycle road helmet, DOT - USA motorcycle road helmet or JIS T8133-2015, class 2 – JPN protective helmets for motor vehicle users. The use of appropriate eye protection is compulsory.

Orlando's Question for December 2017

How can you rewrite these paragraphs in STE?

28 PIT ENTRY, PIT LANE AND PIT EXIT (continued)

28.9 Other than drying, sweeping or any tyre rubber left when cars leave their pit stop position, competitors may not attempt to enhance the grip of the surface in the pit lane unless a problem has been clearly identified and a solution agreed to by the FIA safety delegate.
2017 F1 Storting Régulations 23/68 9 March 2017
©2017 Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile
28.10 Competitors must not paint lines on any part of the pit lane.
28.11 Other than under 28.8 above no equipment may be left in the fast lane

Orlando's Question for Novemeber 2017

How can you rewrite these paragraphs in STE?

28 PIT ENTRY, PIT LANE AND PIT EXIT (continued)

28.8 With the exception of the reconnaissance lap permitted by Article 23.2(b), any driver that is required to start the race from the pit lane may not drive his car from his team’s designated garage area until the 20 minute signal has been given and must stop in a line in the fast lane. Under these circumstances working in the fast lane will be permitted but any such work is restricted to : 
a) Starting the engine and any directly associated preparation.
b) The fitting or removal of permitted cooling and heating devices.
c) Changes made for driver comfort.
d) Changing wheels and tyres.
When cars are permitted to leave the pit lane they must do so in the order that was established under Article 36.2 unless another car is unduly delayed. At all times drivers must follow the directions of the marshals.

Orlando's Question for October 2017

How can you rewrite these paragraphs in STE?

28 PIT ENTRY, PIT LANE AND PIT EXIT (continued)

28.5 The FIA will allocate garages and an area in the pit lane on a strictly equal basis where each team may work and, within each of these designated garage areas, one position where pit stops during both practice and the race may be carried out.
28.6 No powered device may be used to lift any part of a car in the pit lane during a race.
28.7 Unless a car is pushed from the grid at any time during the start procedure, cars may only be driven from the team’s designated garage area to the end of the pit lane. Any car(s) driven to the end of the pit lane prior to the start or re-start of a practice session must form up in a line in the fast lane and leave in the order they got there unless another car is unduly delayed

Orlando's Question for September 217

How can you rewrite these paragraphs in STE?

28 PIT ENTRY, PIT LANE AND PIT EXIT
28.1 The section of track between the first safety car line and the beginning of the pit lane will be designated the “pit entry”.
28.2 The section of track between the end of the pit lane and the second safety car line will be designated the “pit exit”.
28.3 At no time may a car be reversed in the pit lane under its own power.
28.4 The pit lane will be divided into two lanes, the lane closest to the pit wall will be designated the "fast lane" and may be no more than 3.5 metres wide, the lane closest to the garages will  be designated the "inner lane". Other than when cars are at the end of the pit lane under Articles 36.2 and 41, the inner lane is the only area where any work can be carried out on a car. However, no work may be carried out in the fast lane if it is likely to hinder other cars attempting to leave the pit lane.
Source; https://www.formula1.com/en/championship/inside-f1/rules-regs/Pit-lane_procedures.html

Orlando's Question for August 2017

How can you rewrite this paragraph in STE?

5.1 Engine specification:
5.1.1 Only 4-stroke engines with reciprocating pistons are permitted.
5.1.2 Engine cubic capacity must be 1600cc (+0/-10cc).
5.1.3 Crankshaft rotational speed must not exceed 15000rpm.
5.1.4 Fuel mass flow must not exceed 100kg/h.
5.1.5 Below 10500 rpm the fuel mass flow must not exceed Q (kg/h) = 0.009 N(rpm)+ 5.5.
5.1.5 When less than 10500 rpm, the fuel mass flow must not be more than Q (kg/h) = 0.009 N(rpm) + 5.5.

Orlando's Question for July 2017

How can you rewrite this paragraph in STE?

5.6.1 The maximum delay allowed, computed from the respective signals as recorded by the ADR or ECU, between the accelerator pedal position input signal and the corresponding output demands being achieved is 50ms.
5.6.2 Teams may be required to demonstrate the accuracy of the power unit configurations used by the ECU.

Orlando's Question for June 2017

How can you rewrite this paragraph in STE (FIA, F1 Rules and regulations for 2016)?

5.5.3 At any given engine speed the driver torque demand map must be monotonically increasing for an increase in accelerator pedal position.
5.5.4 At any given accelerator pedal position and above 4,000rpm, the driver torque demand map must not have a gradient of less than – (minus) 0.045Nm/rpm.

Orlando's Question for May 2017

How can you rewrite this paragraph in STE?

The maximum torque of the MGU-K may not exceed 200Nm. The torque will be referenced to the crankshaft speed and the fixed efficiency correction defined in Article 5.2.2 will be used to monitor the maximum MGU-K torque.
The laminate thickness of the MGU-K may not be less than 0.05mm.

Orlando's Question for April 2017

How can you rewrite this paragraph in STE?

5.5 Power unit torque demand:

5.5.1 The only means by which the driver may control acceleration torque to the driven wheels is via a single chassis mounted foot (accelerator) pedal.
5.5.2 Designs which allow specific points along the accelerator pedal travel range to be identified by the driver or assist him to hold a position are not permitted.

Orlando's Question for March 2017

How can you rewrite this paragraph in STE?

The MGU-K must be solely and permanently mechanically linked to the powertrain before the main clutch. This mechanical link must be of fixed speed ratio to the engine crankshaft.
The rotational speed of the MGU-K may not exceed 50,000rpm.
The weight of the MGU-K (as defined in line 11 of Appendix 2 to these regulations) may not be less than 7kg.

Orlando's Question for February 2017

How can you rewrite this paragraph in STE? "Engines must have two inlet and two exhaust valves per cylinder. Only reciprocating poppet valves with axial displacement are permitted.  The sealing interface between the moving valve component and the stationary engine component must be circular."

Orlando's Question for January 2017

How can you rewrite this sentence in STE?

The use of any device, other than the engine described in 5.1 above, and one MGU-K, to propel the car, is not permitted.

>>>> To become a member of the MIRCE Akademy please click here <<<<

Orlando's Question for December 2016

How can you rewrite this sentence in STE?

When the car is on the track a lap will be measured on each successive crossing of the timing line, however, when entering the pits the lap will end, and the next one will begin, at the start of the pit lane (as defined in the F1 Sporting Regulations).

Orlando's Question for November 2016

Which spelling is used in STE?

Orlando's Questions for October 2016

Which is the second axiom of technical communication?  

Orlando's Question for September 2016

Which is the first axiom of technical communication?

Orlanod's Question for August 2016

Where can I find a good article on Simplified Technical English?

Orlando's Question for July 2016

Can Simplified Technical English be applied to documents other than aviation maintenance documents?

Orlando's Question for June 2016

Which is the relationship between Simplified Technical English and Mirce Mechanics?

Orlando's Question for May 2016

Why are there no guidelines here for abbreviations of nomenclature?

Orlando's Question for April 2016

How were the words for the STE dictionary chosen?

Orlando's Question for March 2016:

Can I speak STE?

Orlando's Question for February 2016

Can STE be used to teach English?

Orlando's Question for January 2016

Do conditional clauses always need to precede the main clause?

>>>> To become a member of the MIRCE Akademy please click here <<<<

Orlando's Qustion for December 2015

Why does STE not allow “ing” forms?

Orlando's Question for November 2015

Does the ASD-STE100 specification tell you how to use punctuation?

Orlando's Question for October 2015

When writing in STE, why is it important to keep the ideas in one sentence to a minimum?

Orlando's Question for September 2015

Which is the nation top ten of the STE users?

Orlando's Question for August 2015

Can STE be used to teach a technical writer English?

Orlando's Question for July 2015

Is STE recognized and used by the FAA?

Orlando's Question for June 2015

Which are the top 10 Nations requesting copies of the STE specification?

Orlando's Question for May 2015

Which is the percentage of native and non-native English speaking writers using the STE specification?

Orlando's Question for April 2015

Is the STE specification used also outside Aerospace and Defence?

Orlando's Question for March 2015

Who is the owner of the STE specification? 

Orlando's Question for February 2015

Where do I get a copy of the STE specification? Is it free of charge?

Orlando's Quation for January 2015

Does STE regulate units of measurement?

>>>> To become a member of the MIRCE Akademy please click here <<<<

Orlando's Example for December 2014

Which verb form most occurs in procedures written in STE?

Orlando's Example for November 2014

Will STE change the meaning of maintenance procedures?

Orlando's Example for October 2014

How can the following sentence be rewritten in order to be compliant with the STE rules?
Paint the unit with a pressure sensitive low temperature curing glass cloth coating varnish.

Orlando's Example for September 2014

Is STE simple to write?

Orlando's Example for August 2014

Can Technical Names and Technical Verbs contain vocabulary that is explicitly unapproved in the dictionary?

Orlando's Example for July 2014

How were the words for the STE dictionary chosen?

Orlando's Example for June 2014

Does the STE dictionary include all the words that are necessary to write technical documentation?

Orlando's Example for May 2014

Why passive sentences cannot be used in procedures? 

Orlando's Example for April 2014

Do conditional clauses always need to precede the main clause?

Orlando's Examole for March 2014

In Simplified Technical English we can use words that are approved in the controlled dictionary.

What about if a word we would like to use is not listed at all?

Orlando's Example for February 2014

In Simplified Technical English we can use words that are approved in the controlled dictionary, Technical Names and Technical Verbs.
Technical Verbs are not listed in the Dictionary but they are defined in the specification by 4 categories. Which are these categories?

Orlando's Example for January 2014

RULE: 1.5 states that in STE we can use words that are Technical Names.
Technical Names which are not listed in the Dictionary but they are defined in the specification by 19 categories. Which are these categories?

>>>> To become a member of the MIRCE Akademy please click here <<<<
 

Orlando's Example for December 2013

Why is the STE specification itself not written in STE?

Orlando's Example for November 2013

Which sentence is written in correct STE?
 
a) From top to bottom, the controls on the main panel consist of an OFF/ON main switch, a START push button, and a STOP/O.S. TEST push button.
b) The controls on the main panel, from the top to the bottom, are:
- An OFF/ON main switch
- A START push button
- A STOP/O.S. TEST push button.

Orlando's Example for October 2013

Which sentences are written in correct STE?
a) Cracks can be a maximum of five inches long.
b) Can be a maximum of five inches long.
c) Don’t use the part if it is included in post-SB 47-7001 assemblies.
d) Do not use the part if it is included in post-SB 47-7001 assemblies

 Orlando’s Example for September 2013 

Which sentence is written in correct STE?
a) Adjust to obtain door operating rod alignment.
b) Adjust the door operating rod until it is aligned.
 

Orlando’s Example for August 2013

Which sentence is written in correct STE?
a) The body is the primary part of the valve.
b) The body is the main part of the valve.
 

Orlando’s Example for July 2013

Which sentence is written in correct STE?
a)    Make a sandwich with two washers (25) and the spacer (26).
b)    Install the spacer (26) between the two washers (25).

Orlando’s  English Example for June 2013: 

Which of the following sentences is correct in Simplified Technical English?

a) The pressure is increasing during the test.
b) The pressure increases during the test

Orlando’s Example for May 2013: 

Which of the following sentences is correct in Simplified Technical English?

a) Holes must not have sharp edges?
b) Holes shall not have sharp edges?
c) Holes should not have sharp edges?

Orlando’s Example for April 2013: 

Which of the following sentences is correct in Simplified Technical English?

a) One generator has the ability to supply power for all the systems.
b) One generator can supply power for all the systems.  

Orlando’s Example for March 2013: 

Which of the following two NOTES is correct in a maintenance procedure?

a) NOTE: It is not necessary to disassemble the pins from the electrical connector.
b) NOTE: Do not disassemble the pins from the electrical connector. 

Orlando’s Example for February 2013: 

Which is the correct sentence?

a) The circuits are connected by a switching relay?
b) A switching relay connects the circuits?

Orlando’s Example for January 2013:: 

Which is the correct sentence?

a) Turn off the power.
b) Stop the power supply.

>>>> To become a member of the MIRCE Akademy please click here <<<<